Sources

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In this October 1915 report, the German envoy in the Netherlands, Richard von Kühlmann, discussed German ambitions in the Netherlands, Belgium, and Flanders. To read the original report, please click…

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Themes: Race; Propaganda; Newspapers & Magazines; Neutrality; Language; Intellectual Exchange; Imperial Strategy
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Open letters from the Egyptian revolutionary Dr Rifat to the German Chancellor von Bethmann Hollweg published and commented on by an anonymous anti-colonial journalist in the Dutch-Indonesian weekly…

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Themes: Religion; Race; Propaganda; Newspapers & Magazines; Neutrality; Intellectual Exchange; Imperial Strategy
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The photograph shows a group of men and one woman standing on a stairway in front of a facade. In the background, chandeliers are visible. Sheikh Salih al-Sharif is standing in the first row, second…

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Themes: Religion; Propaganda; Photograph; Newspapers & Magazines; Mobility; Intellectual Exchange; Imperial Strategy
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In this report addressed to the German Foreign Office, the anti-colonial Indonesian writer and politician Ernest Douwes Dekker (image 1) describes his secret mission to travel from Rotterdam to…

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Themes: Race; Propaganda; Neutrality; Mobility; Language; Intellectual Exchange; Imperial Strategy; Captivity
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In August 1915, the British Indian revolutionary and German agent Chempa Karam Pillai (image 1) wrote several reports from Amsterdam to the German-sponsored Indian Independence Committee in Berlin. He…

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Themes: Religion; Race; Propaganda; Neutrality; Mobility; Letter; Language; Intellectual Exchange; Imperial Strategy
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This cover image from Die Woche published on 11 January 1916 shows a sketch of Sheikh Salih al-Sharif al-Tunisi. He was a religious North African scholar who worked as a propagandist, advocating…

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Themes: Religion; Propaganda; Newspapers & Magazines; Intellectual Exchange
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The first fragment contains the report of 4 May 1916 written by the French envoy to The Hague Henri Allizé to the French Ministry of Colonies regarding German incitement of Indonesian Muslims. The…

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Themes: Religion; Race; Propaganda; Newspapers & Magazines; Neutrality; Intellectual Exchange; Imperial Strategy
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In this report of 18 March 1917, the French envoy Henri Allizé to The Hague listed all pan-Islamic propaganda printed by German officials in the Netherlands and circulated to the British and French…

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Themes: Religion; Race; Propaganda; Newspapers & Magazines; Neutrality; Language; Intellectual Exchange; Imperial Strategy
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